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    Academic Review of International Seminar on “Counterterrorism, De-radicalization and Human Rights Protection”
    April 07,2020   By:CSHRS
    Academic Review of International Seminar on “Counterterrorism, De-radicalization and Human Rights Protection”
     
    ZHANG Yonghe* & ZHANG Li**
     
    Abstract: The International Seminar on Counterterrorism, De-radicalization and Human Rights Protection sponsored by China Society for Human Rights Studies and organized jointly by Human Rights Research Institute of Southwest University of Political Science and Law and School of Politics and Public Administration of Xinjiang University was held in Urumqi, the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, on September 3-7, 2019, with the participation of more than 60 experts from 18 countries and international organizations. The seminar shared research and exchanged ideas on humanitarianism and human rights protection in counterterrorism and de-radicalization work and launched comparative research and international cooperation on counterterrorism and de-radicalization. The participants shared their understanding of terrorism and extremism and their counties experiences in combating terrorism and extremism, positively evaluated China’s work on counterterrorism and de-radicalization and the international cooperation to combating terrorism and extremism. This seminar contributed to stimulating the exchanges and cooperation in theoretical and practical research on counterterrorism, de-radicalization and human rights protection.
     
    Keywords: counterterrorism    de-radicalization    human rights protection    Xinjiang governance
     
    The International Seminar on Counterterrorism, De-radicalization and Human Rights Protection sponsored by the China Society for Human Rights Studies and organized jointly by the Human Rights Research Center of Southwest University of Political Science and Law and the School of Politics and Public Administration of Xinjiang University was held in Urumqi, Xinjiang, on September 3-7, 2019. The seminar chiefly discussed issues related to the themes “Humanitarianism and human rights protection in counterterrorism and de-radicalization” and “comparative research and international cooperation in counterterrorism and de-radicalization”. Mr. Jiang Jianguo, Vice-Minister of Publicity Department of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China, Mr. Sh?hret Zakir, chairman of the People’s Government of the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, Mr. Predrag Malkovich, director of the Institute for the Recent History of Serbia and vice-chairman of Socialist Party of Serbia, Mr. Abdelaziz Asadi, expert of the UN Human Rights Advisory Committee and Ms. PalidanTuerxun, vice-president of Xinjiang University delivered speeches at the opening ceremony. More than 60 experts and scholars from 18 countries and international organizations attended the seminar and held in-depth discussions on the following issues.
     
    I. How to Recognize Terrorism and Extremism
     
    Extremism1 is the ideological basis of terrorism2 and breeds terrorism. The two severely threaten the world’s peace and development and seriously impair the lives and properties of people around the world.3 Since the 1920s, the international community has attached attention to and tackled terrorist threats. Since the 1970s, worldwide terrorist incidents have occurred constantly, presenting the major changes in such three respects as magnified international scope, close ties between terrorist assaults and jihad organizations and soaring numbers of victims.4 After the attacks on the United States on September 11, 2001, the international community began to reconsider the issue of terrorism, attached special attention to terrorist activities under the background of cultures, nations and religions and took it as the common enemy of all civilized societies, a common challenge and common target of combat.
     
    In view of the strong political nature of terrorism,5 terrorism and extremism tend to be a “social construct” rather than simply a “brute fact”. This viewpoint has won extensive identification now.6 The definitions of terrorism and extremism are different in expression. Countries across the world have not reached consensus on the composition of terrorism and the identification of terrorists.7 They have different definitions of “terrorist activities”, “terrorist organizations (organizations engaged in terrorist activities)” and “terrorist crimes” etc.8 The terrorist crimes commonly combated are enumerated here.9 It means that cooperation in international counterterrorism on which consensus has not been reached needs to be further enhanced.
     
    Even the United Nations has had difficulty in comprehensively defining terrorism. In 1988, the United Nations defined terrorism as all the crimes aimed or plan-ning to provoke phobism among the public, a group of people or special persons.10 However, it didn’t require again to “make a definition with unanimous consensus” but focused on researching the measures to combat terrorism in the method of “solving specific problems with specific measures” and connected this issue with human rights protection. It has formulated 19 documents on International Law on hijacking and preventing terrorist attacks.
     
    Although it is difficult to define the connotations and denotations of terrorism and extremism, the participants reached the following consensus on the nature of the two. First, terrorism and extremism feature strong political viewa. Italian participant Mr. Fabio Massimo Parenti criticized the Western theories on human rights and held the view that many Western scholars and politicians try to monopolize the concept of human rights and the misuse and abuse of the concept of human rights worldwide which has had a negative influence on the counterterrorism efforts of countries and impeded international counterterrorism cooperation. The Western countries headed by the United States vigorously advocate their own theories on human rights and the “humanitarian” wars they waged in Iraq, Libya and Syria were the manifestations of their extremist theories on human rights. However, the so-called “humanitarian” wars could not evade the suspicion of their using this as an excuse to realize their own rule over these countries and interfere with and overturn the governments of other countries.11 Professor Qian Jinyu of Northwest University of Politics and Law thought that the anxieties of the Western countries based on the reconstruction of the global political and economic patterns jointly composed the radical view of “political correctness”.12 The view of human rights fostered in the radical view of “political correctness” is manifestly shown as a bias towards China and Russia in terms of human rights13 and is likely to produce and fuel terrorism and extremism. Mr. Predrag Malkovich from Serbia pointed out that the United States “selectively expressed its indignation” to the human rights (conditions) of other countries after the September 11 attacks, defined all violent activities against the interests of the United States and its allies as terrorist activities and applied double standards in the practice of counterterrorism. In striving for human rights and combating terrorism, the instructions from “the Washington headquarters” were not needed.14
     
    Second, terrorism and extremism have an extremist, antihuman, anti-civilization and anti-social nature.15 Any antihuman activity employing violence and producing terror, in whatever form, is in essence challenge to modern civilization and the post-war order and seriously impairs human rights. Professor Han Dayuan of Renmin University of China noted that terrorism destroys the constitutional order, severely threatens human lives, freedom and security and is the arch enemy of human rights protection.16 Professor Lu Zhi’an of Fudan University held the view that religious extremist activities also went against the principle of freedom of religious belief in International Human Rights Law.17
     
    Third, terrorism and extremism are not connected with specific regions, nations or religions. The extremist forces believing in Islam are the most prominent in terms of amount, scale and destructive influence among all sorts of extremist, terrorist orga-nizations in the world. Besides, due to the geographical characteristics of the present terrorist activities, people tend to link Islam with terrorism and the Western countries accordingly coined the concept of an “Islamic threat”. Nevertheless, terrorism and extremism are global phenomena rather than exclusive to only a region, nationality or religion. Mr. Abdul Wahid Wahid, senior adviser of the Minister of Pilgrimage and Religious Affairs of Afghanistan and director of the Political Department of the Iranian Revolutionary Party of Afghanistan pointed out that Islam does not defend extrem-ism but closes the door to it.18 Mr. Khuwaja Muhammad Esami of the Divinity School of Kabul University of Afghanistan also pointed out that Islam banned any destructive tool leading to human extinction.19 For this reason, the idea of linking terrorism and extremism with any specific nation or religion is the ideological source of religious, national and racial conflicts and does not serve to eliminate racial discrimination, national conflicts and religious confrontations.20
     
    II. Experience of Different Countries in Combating Terrorism and Extremism
     
    Terrorism and extremism threaten territorial integrity and the national security of a state, as well as government stability, rule of law and democracy, social operation and international peace and security and ignore and trample on people’s basic rights to survival, development, properties and health. Death and imprisonment caused by terrorist activities and the sexual assaults on women by terrorists directly jeopardize the victims’ rights to life, freedom and security, and have had brought disastrous aftermaths for the victims and put the families of the victims and even the whole area under terror and prolonged injury. Meanwhile, terrorism and extremism have almost completely destroyed the conditions and environment to protect and realize the devel-opment of human rights.21 Now countries are combating terrorism and extremism by constantly improving legislation but their major striving directions of action discord with each other.
     
    First, military forces have been used to combat terrorism and extremism. Jaya-nath Colombage, former admiral of Sri Lanka pointed out that Sri Lanka adopted military measures to defeat the terrorist organization Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam. Sri Lanka’s military victory against the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam and indoctrination of former armed personnel were successful. No incident of violence has occurred so far and no indoctrinated figure has taken up arms and conducted illegal activities.22
     
    Second, preventive strategies were adopted to eradicate the soil of terrorism and extremism. Military measures to combat extremism and terrorism are not the best solution. For instance, Britain, Pakistan, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan and China have chosen to adopt preventive measures against terrorism and promoted and enhanced development with the agenda of social inclusiveness. Primarily, education is an important way to prevent terrorism. Britain contained the spread of extremist thought among students through education.23 Uzbekistan has devoted itself to popularizing the true values of Islam among young people24; Pakistan is building the correct religious ideology based on knowledge to annul the ideology of the extremists.25 The Turkish Bureau of Religious Affairs has reinterpreted the religious text, conducted religious education in the modern framework and promoted more moderate Islam. Besides, the standard of living has been improved. For instance, some countries including China and Uzbekistan have eliminated poverty, helped increase employment, solved the problem of housing to improve the living standards of the people, especially the young, and reduced marginalization and sense of injury derived from them so as to cut down on the recruitment of extremists and terrorists. Furthermore, in view that capital is the lifeline of the survival and development of terrorist organizations, all countries have also launched “financial counterterrorism” aimed at combating terrorist funding. The conventions and resolutions of the United Nations explicitly stipulate the obligations of public authorities and private organizations and form a comparatively complete legal mechanism for financial counterterrorism. 26 Moreover, many coun-tries have accelerated the domestic legislative process for counterterrorism. As Mr. Ali Abdullah Wibisono of the School of International Relations of the University of Indonesia pointed out, the counterterrorism policies of Indonesia are legal means and criminal and judicial measures formed through administrative and legislative consultation.27 Many European countries have expedited the domestic legislative process to ban headscarves, strictly banning people from wearing headscarves in public. China’s Xinjiang Uygur autonomous region has issued the Ban on Headscarf’s in Public in Urumqi Municipality and the Regulations on Religious Affairs in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, which accord with the international trend and the mainstream practice, reflecting respect for humanity, protecting the rights and traditional national culture of women and children, reinforcing counterterrorism and maintaining public interests.28 Ms. Kozhirova Svetlana in charge of China and Central Asia Research Center of Astana International Academic Institution of the Republic of Kazakhstan pointed out that Kazakhstan had approved a law on religious activities and associa-tions and registered significant achievements; the state’s monitoring over the religious associations balanced the interests of the state and society; and citizens realized that they should conduct religious activities according to national regulations.29 Generally, all countries have attached importance to combating terrorism and extremism, firmly combining counterstrikes with prevention, systematic conduct de-radicalization education and training and highly value the integration of de-radicalization and providing more economic opportunities.30
     
    A general survey of the experiences of all countries in counterterrorism indicates that preventive counterterrorism specifically through education, improving living standards and financial counterterrorism receives more attention in addition to coun-terterrorism by direct military attack. China has expanded its cooperation and assis-tance scale in rule of law, human rights and good governance to support sustainable economic and social growth, which attracted the attention of the foreign participants. As Mr. Ali Abdullah Wibisono pointed out, all countries can learn from China stability-centered, state-oriented and development-targeted counterterrorism strategies.
     
    III.  How to Regard China’s Counterterrorism and De-radicalization Initiatives
     
    In the severe situation of international counterterrorism, China has rigorously cracked down on terrorism and extremism according to law, given top priority to preventive counterterrorism, explored the useful experiences in counterterrorism and de-radicalization, established a comprehensive, three-dimensional and modernized pattern of counterterrorism, improved the working system of counterterrorism, en-hanced the buildup of counterterrorist forces, summarized its experience in practice, achieved abundant accomplishments and received extensive attention from foreign scholars.
     
    A. China’s concept and principles of counterterrorism and de-radicalization
     
    First, China persistently combats terrorism and extremism according to the law. China actively responded to the Resolution: The United Nations Global Counterterrorism Strategy (60/288), devoted itself to eliminating the conditions for the spread of terrorism and to preventing and combating terrorism. It always combats terrorism and extremism pursuant to the laws, regulations and judicial interpretations of Constitution, the Criminal Law, the Criminal Procedure Law, the National Security Law, the Counterterrorism Law, the Regulations on Religious Affairs and Views on Applicable Laws to Handle Criminal Cases of Terrorist Activities and Extremist Crimes, persists in strictly handling cases according to law with the policies of combining punishment with leniency and launched counterterrorism and de-radicalization initiatives. 31
     
    Second, China has resolutely countered terrorism to protect human rights.32 To protect the human rights of the Chinese people of all ethnic groups, China persistently combats terrorist activities to protect the life and property security of people of all ethnic groups. It is the fundamental protection of human rights. That “the state respects and protects human rights” is an important, valuable pursuit of China’s Constitution. This principle, together with the principles of “safeguarding the legitimate rights of the citizens and organizations”, “respecting the citizens’ freedom of religious belief and the national customs” and “banning discrimination”, composes the fundamentals of counterterrorism in the Counterterrorism Law. To protect human rights is the fun-damental objective of China’s counterterrorism. China not merely protects the human rights of the direct victims of terrorist activities and those directly threatened by ter-rorism but also protects the legitimate rights of the suspects.
     
    Third, China focuses on preventive counterterrorism and combined punishment with leniency and education. In view of the negative influence and losses to the soci-ety and the people, the same as many other countries, China has constantly improved its preventive measures against terrorism and nipped terrorist activities in the bud. Chapter 3 of the Counterterrorism Law has systematic stipulations on publicity and education, network monitoring, arms, ammunition and dangerous products control, terrorism-involved financing control and urban counterterrorism planning and estab-lished the comprehensive, three-dimensional security protection system. Meanwhile, the Amendment to Criminal Law (IX) displays a tendency toward preventive legislation,33 adding five new types of crimes, namely, the “crime of preparing to conduct terrorist activities”, “crime of popularizing terrorism and extremism and inciting terrorist activities”, “crime of breaking law implementation through extremist activities”, and “crime of wearing the clothes and logos popularizing terrorism and extremism”, and “crime of illegally holding and promoting terrorism and extremism”.
     
    Fourth, China has devoted itself to conducting counterterrorism by all the people with the joint support of many departments. The implementation of counterterrorism work requires the coordination of many departments. According to the Counter-terrorism Law, the public security organizations, national security organs, people’s procuratorates, people’s courts, administrative organizations of justice and other state organs concerned, as the main parts of counterterrorism work, should cooperate with the village committees, neighborhood committees, enterprises, public institutions and social organizations and fully mobilize the enthusiasm of all the parties concerned to perform their own functions, do their duties and act in close coordination and cooperation.34 They should combine special work with the mass line and practically and jointly conduct counterterrorism work.
     
    B. China’s practice and achievements in counterterrorism and de-radicalization
     
    When absorbing and learning from the experience of the international community in counterterrorism, China also persistently gives top priority to the fundamental interests of people of all countries, thoroughly solves different kinds of deep-seated problems, positively explores effective routes in practice and has established an effec-tive system of counterterrorism by means of improving legislation, alleviating poverty, improving people’s livelihoods, popularizing legal knowledge to the people, enhanc-ing people’s consciousness governed by law, the setting up vocational education and training centers and actively providing help and education.35
     
    First, China improved the legislation system on counterterrorism. In December 2015, China approved the Counterterrorism Law, historically the first comprehensive counterterrorism law named. Additionally, China amended and improved such laws as the Criminal Law, the Criminal Procedure Law, the Law of Anti-money Laundering, Cyber Safety Act and Nuclear Safety Act and such administrative and departmental rules and regulations as Regulations on Religious Affairs and Views to Improve the Mechanisms of Anti-money Laundering and Counterterrorist Financing and Anti-tax Evasion. The Supreme People’s Court, the Supreme People’s Procuratorate and other organizations issued the Views on Applicable Laws to Handle Criminal Cases of Ter-rorist Activities and Extremist Crimes and Interpretations to the Applicable Laws on Handling Criminal Cases of Making up and Deliberately Spreading False Information on Terrorism to interpret counterterrorism and de-radicalization.36 Some foreign guests commented that China had scored pivotal progress in a series of legislation on counterterrorism and national security.37
     
    Second, China has strived to alleviate poverty and improve people’s livelihoods.38
     
    Poverty, especially shortage of such basic necessities as grain and water resources, can generate and spread extremism and terrorism and lead to and accelerate the dis-semination of extremist violence.39 China has adhered to the idea of people-oriented development, implemented targeted poverty-alleviation, given top priority to develop-ing people’s livelihoods in Xinjiang and applied more than 70 percent of the fiscal expenditures and funds targeted at Xinjiang to protect and improve people’s livelihoods there.40 China has registered fruitful achievements in promoting employment, education, medical care and social insurance etc.,41 further improved the living standards of poor people, incessantly boosted people’s minimum standard of living, practically protected people’s rights to employment, education and health, laying a solid foundation for counterterrorism.
     
    Third, China has strengthened its legal education and publicity on counterterrorism and human rights.42 The Chinese people have acquired greater legal knowledge and enhanced their legal awareness, as those with weak legal awareness and inadequate legal knowledge are easier to be incited by terrorist and extremist forces to commit crimes. 43 The Xinjiang Uygur autonomous region issued the Regulations on Legal Publicity and Education in the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, Views on Building the Practice Base to Enhance Legal Education for the Youth in the Autonomous Region and Views on Implementing the “Law Enforcers and Law Popularization Ex-ecutives” Law Popularization Responsibility Mechanism by the State Organs to popularize legal knowledge to the grassroots people, especially youths, enhance awareness of the law, carry forward the legal spirit, foster legal belief and promote legal practice so as to boost people’s ability to resist the permeation of religious extremist thought. 44
     
    Fourth, China has set up vocational education and training centers and positively offered assistance and education.45 To tackle terrorist assaults in Xinjiang that pro-duced massive harm to people’s life and property safety and trampled on people’s dignity, Xinjiang has taken resolute measures, formulated, modified and improved the Measures of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region to Implement the Counterterrorism Law of the People’s Republic of China and Regulations on De-radicalization in the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, conducted terrorist and de-radicalization efforts according to the law, set up education and training centers and provided vocational-technical education training, learning of the common language and awareness of the law to those who committed terrorist and extremist crimes or received adminis-trative punishment and those who were not prosecuted or released from prison46 The measures introduced as preventive counterterrorism efforts, have effectively contained the momentum of frequent terrorist activities and protected the fundamental rights of the people of all ethnic groups in Xinjiang.
     
    China’s counterterrorism is fundamentally aimed at protecting human rights, adheres to the principle of preventive counterterrorism, has built a complete legal system on counterterrorism based on China’s Constitution and led by the Counterterrorism Law, actively prevents terrorist activities by improving people’s living standards, boosting legal knowledge and providing education and training with the support of different departments.
     
    IV. How to Balance the Relations of Counterterrorism and Human Rights Protection?
     
    Terrorism severely harms human rights and basic freedoms, and counterterrorism measures are ways and measures to protect and realize human rights.47 Counterterrorism measures, especially preventive measures, are intensification of the state power and the preposition of preventive measures 48 that may infringe on such basic human rights as the rights of freedom, equality, life, health and privacy. Therefore, priorities must be paid to balance the counterterrorism measures and human rights protection.
     
    A. Conflict of counterterrorism and human rights protection
     
    The legitimacy of the objectives of counterterrorism measures is not equal to the rationality of the process and the results. The measures for governments to crack down on terrorism and extremism can strengthen social stability and state security and fundamentally protect human rights but in doing so unavoidably infringe upon the basic human rights and freedom of citizens.49 Concurrently, the basic rights of the victims of terrorism and the legitimate rights of the terrorists and extremists should also be protected in efforts to counter terrorism.
     
    The counterterrorism measures may infringe on citizens’ rights to freedom, equality, life and privacy due to the conflicts between the interests of the state, the collective and the individuals. For instance, during the course of counterterrorism, any misuse of the investigation measures such as arrest or imprisonment may restrict the personal freedom of innocent civilians; the monitoring, transportation and security control and compulsory measures at exit and entry create more obstacles to people’s freedom of action.50 It often occurs that some are proved innocent and released after long-term imprisonment. Giving another example, if the law enforcement agencies link terrorism with a particular ethnic group, religion or region when implementing counterterrorism measures, they will unconsciously enhance the application of these measures during law enforcement and may discriminate against a certain ethnic group, religion or region. Besides, in an emergency, the enlarged power of the counterter-rorism enforcement agencies will damage the rights of life and health of the innocent people. Mr. Talat Shabbir, director of the Islamabad (Pakistan) Institute of Strategic Studies and China-Pakistan Research Center, pointed out that Pakistan’s counterterrorist struggles have caused disastrous casualties including the non-combat personnel or the innocent civilians in the counterterrorism struggle.51 Additionally, the enhanced technical capacity of the intelligence organizations of all countries and the large-scale digital monitoring in counterterrorism have brought unprecedented threat to ‘people’s privacy,52 for instance, the “PRISM” programme of the United States and that the French network suppliers must keep the “traces” of their users to use and browse the internet to facilitate query by the inspection offices at any time.53 Meanwhile, the im-plementation of the counterterrorism measures should exempt terrorists and extremist criminals from torture, inhuman and degrading treatment and ensure they enjoy the right of a fair trial.
     
    B. Balance between counterterrorism and human rights protection
     
    Counterterrorism measures and human rights protection may have conflicts due to the conflicts of the interests of the state, the collective and individuals. It is a practical issue of each country of the international community to coordinate and balance the conflicts between human rights protection and counterterrorism in the legal frame-work and build the bond of order, stability and human rights protection.54
     
    First, efforts should be made to respect the fundamental rights of citizens.55 Primarily, to maximize the protection of the fundamental rights of the citizens should be placed as the starting point and the objective of formulating counterterrorism measures, and relief should be granted to the citizens when their fundamental rights are infringed upon. According to Article 78 of the Counterterrorism Law, the public authorities should maintain the legitimate rights and interests of the citizens and organizations. Compensation should be given to the units or individuals for any damage done to their legitimate rights and interests during counterterrorism efforts. The units and individuals concerned have the right to apply for compensation according to the law. Moreover, in punishing violent and terrorist crimes according to law, the judiciary authorities should handle the cases strictly according to legal procedures, insist on procedural justice, combine punishing crimes and judicial safeguards on human rights, lawfully protect the rights of the defendants to defend themselves, apply the ethnic languages to institute proceedings and prohibit arbitrary arrest, illegal detention, detention beyond the legally prescribed time limits, torture, inhuman and degrading treatment and clearly define the jurisdiction principle and the evidence-gathering principle.56
     
    Second, with the increasingly severe global situation of terrorism, counterterrorism should make necessary restrictions on the citizens’ rights within the legal limits with the explicit authorization of the law. Professor Han Dayuan pointed out that all countries are re-examining the value of human rights and the order, seeking the mech-anisms and procedures to balance the relations of the two through the Constitution and integrating the possible conflicts between security and human rights into the con-stitutional norms and systems to harmonize the order and the norms of human rights and provide a basis for the state to realize its constitutional functions under the severe threat of terrorism to the value of human rights. Concurrently, all countries should amend their counterterrorism laws and criminal laws, strengthen the punishment of terrorists and adopt corresponding counterterrorism measures to monitor the suspects through legislative restrictions and derogation of the civil liberties.57 With the right of privacy as an example, according to the International Human Rights Law, the state has the obligation to protect the right of privacy of citizens and should not arbitrarily interfere with their personal privacy. In the face of the severe situation of counterter-rorism, all countries are often required to expand the monitoring scope of digital com-munications. The terrorist organizations have recruited members by using information and communication technology, which does not impair the importance or cancel the obligation of all countries to respect the right of privacy stipulated in international law. Professor Zhang Wei of China University of Political Science and Law pointed out that, in the conflict of balancing counterterrorism and right of privacy, the state should follow the principles of legality, necessity and proportionality or the conditions of derogation according to the framework of international human rights law so as to infringe on people’s privacy without reason.58
     
    Third, standardization of the counterterrorism order should be guaranteed.59 Primarily, in the initial stage of policymaking, consideration should be given to the influence of counterterrorism and de-radicalization policies and programmes on human rights, investigating the potential harm they may do to human rights, evaluating the influence of the prevailing policies on human rights and regularly submitting programmes on how to abide by the principle of proportionality and the measures to prevent power abuse. As stipulated in the Counterterrorism Law, the leading organs of counterterrorism should submit reports to the upper authorities, make comprehensive analyses, summaries and assessments of the terrorist incidents and the coping strategies and put forward measures for precaution, disposal and improvement.
     
    V. International Cooperation in Combating Terrorism and Extremism
     
    Combating terrorism and extremism require the joint efforts of all countries. Not a single country or region can tackle terrorist threats alone.60 Terrorism will be eradicated only with the active participation, collaboration and comprehensive measures of all the countries involved.61 President Xi Jinping in his speech at the United Nations Office in Geneva in 2017 pointed out that “Counterterrorism is the joint obligation of all countries, which should be wiped out by temporary and permanent solutions. Co-ordination should be strengthened to establish the global counterterrorism united front and shelter the security of people of all countries”. As an international organization, the United Nations attaches much attention to counterterrorism. It has formulated the Global Counterterrorism Strategy of the United Nations and up to 20 international legal documents on specific terrorist actions; concurrently set up the Office of Counterterrorism, strengthened contact between UN members for counterterrorist tasks and been unswervingly devoted to enhancing international cooperation to prevent and combat terrorism, violence and extremism in all forms and manifestations. Regional cooperation organizations such as the European Union and the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) have also formulated corresponding counterterrorist measures according to the situations in their regions.
     
    A. UN counterterrorism framework
     
    The United Nations has adopted numerous actions against terrorism, among which the most important is the Global Counterterrorism Strategy of the United Nations approved by the UN Assembly on September 8, 2006. Besides, the United Nations and its special agencies have formulated many international legal documents prohibiting terrorist actions, with the contents involving aspects such as civil aviation, protection of international staff, hostage hijacking, nuclear materials, marine navigation, explosive materials, terrorist attacks, the subsidizing the terrorist activities and nuclear terrorism.62
     
    In accordance with the four pillars of the Global Counterterrorism Strategy of the United Nations and other such documents, Professor Christian Mestre, former president of the University of Strasbourg of France, summarized the objectives of combating terrorism and religious extremism as: to prevent and combat terrorism, for instance, combating subsidies for terrorism through tracing suspicious capital flows; to eliminate the conditions for the spread of terrorism, such as combating terrorist propaganda, especially, online publicity and recruitment; to implement de-radicalization programme and the social rehabilitation; to build and train the police force\s and train counterterrorist professionals and all the staff possibly concerned; to implement the national education plan, prevent radicalization and chiefly unite the youth in sharing the state values and social principles.63
     
    In addition to Counterterrorism Implementation Task Force (CTITF)64 and UN Counterterrorism Centre,65 the United Nations has set up several special counterter-rorism agencies. In June 2017, the UN Assembly approved Resolution No.71/291 to set up the Office of Counterterrorism to enhance the UN system and help the member states to implement the Global Counterterrorism Strategy of the United Nations. As a major reform of the UN’s measures of counterterrorism, the Office of Counterterror-ism is intended to reinforce the organizing ability, help the member countries to imple-ment the Global Counterterrorism Strategy of the United Nations and better respond to the rising demands of the international community for counterterrorism.66
     
    However, that multilevel cooperation of the international community is obviously inadequate in the face of the increasingly transnational and multilevel characteristics of terrorist threats. For instance, the international community endeavoring to cope with the challenges of terrorism often feels exhausted for political reasons, and with the using of this point, terrorist organizations are trying to further split the interna-tional community. The ability of counterterrorist struggles of all countries should be enhanced. It is of special significance for the states to act on their own, strengthen governance, formulate sustainable policies, make bilateral, sub-regional, regional and international efforts in counterterrorism and prevent terrorism and illegal trafficking of goods through border and customs control. 67
     
    B. Regional cooperation in counterterrorism
     
    In view of the differences of stance and values and other political factors, coun-tries across the world cannot reach a global consensus on counterterrorism. The issue of regional borders in the governance of terrorism and extremism makes regional governance and trans-regional cooperation of counterterrorism necessary. As the typical representatives of regional cooperation, the European Union and the Shanghai Cooperation Organization have made beneficial trials in regional counterterrorism gover-nance.
     
    The European Union, which is devoted to establishing an all-dimensional coun-terterrorism policy framework has formulated the Counterterrorism Strategy of the European Union, issued some counterterrorism measures to enhance state capacities, promoted European cooperation, developed collective ability and improved interna-tional cooperation68 and combated terrorism worldwide. Meanwhile, the European Union and its member countries have formulated many documents and included the clauses on counterterrorism in many bilateral and multilateral agreements. The Counterterrorism Strategy of the European Union focuses on the following four as-pects: The first is prevention, that is, de-radicalization and reducing the recruitment of terrorists; 69 the second is to protect, that is, protecting the citizens and infrastructure and reducing the vulnerability to attacks, including ensuring the security of the outer boundary, boosting transport security and protecting strategic targets and key infra-structure; the third is to pursue, that is, trying to stop the plans of the terrorists and bring them to justice — to achieve this goal, the European Union should devote itself to enhancing state capacities, improving the cooperation and information exchanges between the police and the judicial authorities, combating financing for terrorist activ-ities and depriving the support and communication means of the terrorists; the fourth is to respond, that is, preparing for, managing and minimizing the results of terrorist attacks.70
     
    Since the “three forces” in Central Asia and the surrounding areas severely threaten the common security and stability of the Central Asia, the Shanghai Cooperation Organization has formulated powerful counterterrorism measures and structures. Apart from the SCO secretariat, the SCO has set up the Regional Anti-Terrorist Structure (RATS) in Tashkent. The standing body is aimed at promoting cooperation in combating terrorism, separatism and extremism. It is a more complete structure enabling the stable multilateral cooperation in information sharing and capability construction under the RATS.71 Concurrently, the SCO and Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) are cooperating on counterterrorism. The Memorandum of Understanding between SCO Secretariat and ASEAN Secretariat has prioritized their cooperation in counterterrorism, combating drug trafficking and weapon smuggling. Under the framework of the SCO, China has entered into many documents with the countries concerned.72 A Malaysian scholar suggested China should play a greater role in coordinating the cooperation of ASEAN and SCO in counterterrorism.73
     
    VI. How to Develop Effective Counterterrorism and De-radicalization Mechanisms?
     
    Combating terrorism and extremism is the responsibility and obligation of a state. However, this requires prevention, precautions and combating. The government should actively assume the responsibility of guiding the youth to reject terrorism, engage in communication with different groups of people, appraising counterterrorism measures in real-time, establishing the mode of comprehensive governance by multi-agents, seeking both temporary and permanent solutions and establishing an all-di-mensional counterterrorism system featuring precautions and combating after attacks.
     
    First, efforts should be made to build a responsibility performing government centered on public responsibility rather than non-public power. The government should actively fulfill and assume its counterterrorism and de-radicalization responsibilities. 74 To realize effective and thorough counterterrorism, the government should combine the obligations of public authorities with the initiatives of the local communities75 and guide the formation of the situation of counterterrorism with the participa-tion of civil society, law-enforcement departments, community leaders and stakeholders.76
     
    Second, establish the mode of comprehensive treatment by multi -agents and seeking both temporary and permanent solutions, rigorously combating terrorist ac-tivities and removing the soil in which terrorism takes root It is not a fundamental method to combat extremism and terrorism with military measures. Terrorism should be prevented and combated through comprehensive governance with temporary and permanent measures. The comprehensive legal mechanism on counterterrorism. incor-porating culture, administration, finance, military and news should be constructed 77 Mr. Rustam Atovulloev, expert of the Office of Investigation and Survey of the Uzbekistan Human Rights Center, pointed out that Uzbekistan is now preventing terrorism by means of boosting the level to protect the youth and provide employment and housing to them.78 Mr. Abdul Wahid Wahid highly praised the Chinese government for the funds it provides to support the development projects in Xinjiang each year and thought that these measures were more benevolent ways of counterterrorism than those of some Western countries, which made positive contributions to the effectiveness of the counterterrorism strategies.79
     
    Third, formulate counterterrorism programmes focused on educating the youth.80 Young people are both potential perpetrators and victims of violent extremism and im-portant participants of preventive work and should be included as an essential part of counterterrorism programmes. They can jointly participate in all kinds of activities in-cluding education, art or sports activities and learn such life skills as conflict management, team cooperation, leniency, empathy and critical thinking to identify and reject extremist thought. These activities and skills training should be designed to stimulate political, racial, social and religious leniency, promote cultural diversity and gender equality and enhance the understanding of the youth about the knowledge on human rights.
     
    Fourth, determine the methods to communicate with different groups,81for instance, to effectively communicate with religious circles, the positive guidance of the religious staff and persisting in modernization development with compatible religions and society.82 The counterterrorism programmes focusing on the youth should follow the development and progress of new technology and effective communication should be made with the youth using this technology. Trust-based relations should be estab-lished between the community and the local authorities, including security forces and social and educational services to enhance the ability to prevent and defend against violence. Political or soft measures should be applied to illegally armed forces to eliminate the influence of extremist ideology, and overall strategies should be worked out for the armed extremists (the armed extremists regretting and ready to give up vio-lence) to re-enter society. 83
     
    Fifth, an assessment mechanism should be set up. An effective assessment mechanism should be set up for counterterrorism and de-radicalization work. The assess-ment system should be constantly developed and updated to follow the changes of the times and be effectively upgraded when necessary.84 It is required to foster the ability to act under the framework of human rights and laws, namely, to recognize the rights of a person and more importantly to clarify the individual responsibilities during the course of human rights protection.85
     
    VII. Conclusion
     
    Terrorism and extremism violate the fundamental human rights. Counterterrorism and de-radicalization are global priorities for the time being. This seminar stimulated all countries to share their counterterrorism and de-radicalization experiences and achievements and promoted the international community to reach consensus on terror-ism and extremism and conduct international counterterrorism and de-radicalization cooperation, balancing counterterrorism and human rights protection and effectively forming counterterrorism and de-radicalization mechanisms. Meanwhile, China im-plemented the national poverty-alleviation strategy to improve people’s livelihoods, protected people’s rights to life and development, popularized legal knowledge, estab-lished education and training centers, helped those who were once involved in terrorism and extremism to re-enter society and worked out China’s plans for international counterterrorism cooperation.
     
    Fundamentally, the seminar aimed to protect human rights, fully pooled the Chinese wisdom on counterterrorism strategies centered on preventive measures, passed on China’s confidence, reflected China’s responsibilities and forces, won the affirmation of other countries and deserved promotion worldwide. As a responsible big power, China will take a further open, confident and inclusive attitude to positively explore effective ways to combat terrorism and de-radicalization according to the law, positively participate in the UN and regional counterterrorism work, break through the fetters of ideology, culture, traditions and political systems, enhance political mutual trust with more countries, reach strategic consensus, promote communication and cooperation and jointly build the comprehensive counterterrorism strategies fundamentally aiming to protect human rights and applying positive precautions and severe combating afterwards.
     
    (Translated by JIANG Lin)
     

     
    *ZHANG Yonghe ( 張永和 ), Executive Director and Professor of the Human Rights Research Institute, Southwest University of Political Science and Law.
     
    **ZHANG Li ( 張麗 ), Doctoral Candidate of Human Rights Research Institute, Southwest University of Political Science and Law.
     
    1.Extremism and terrorism are two different social phenomena. Extremism refers to “the advocacy and actions taking the extremist political viewpoint or ideology as the belief and purposefully adopting extremist, especially violent measures to express their views and generate political or social reforms, not limited to religious extremism. Extremism in the present text refers to religious extremism which is the ideological foundation of terrorism and generates terrorism.” See Jia Yu, Research on the Legal Issues Concerning China’s Counterterrorism (Beijing: China University of Political Science and Law Press, 2018), 119.
     
    2.Abdul Wahid Wahid, “Anti-extremism Struggle: Success and Failure” (paper presented at the international seminar on counterterrorism, de-radicalization and human rights protection, Urumqi, the Xinjiang Uygur autonomous region, September 3-7, 2019).
     
    3.Some foreign scholars described extremism as “terrorism bred at home” or “local terrorism” and thought that many international terrorist organizations evolved from the former religious extremist organizations. See P.Neumann and M. Smith, Thestrategy of Terrorism: How It Works and Why It Fails (London: Routledge, 2008), 4.
     
    4.Christian Mestre, “The Fight against Terrorism and Religious Extremist: Some Reflections and Remarks” (paper presented at the international seminar on counterterrorism, de-radicalization and human rights protection, Urumqi, the Xinjiang Uygur autonomous region, September 3-7, 2019).
     
    5.Some participants held the view that the difference between terrorism and other crimes rests in that terrorism threatens the existence of a state. See Majid Torkaman, “Toward Geography of Peace: Countering Terrorism, Protecting Human Rights” (paper presented at the international seminar on counterterrorism, de-radicalization and human rights protection, Urumqi, the Xinjiang Uygur autonomous region, September 3-7, 2019). The general characteristic of terrorism is “the action of exercising or threatening to exercise violence on other parties for some political purposes”. See Han Dayuan, “On the Relationshipbetween National Security and Human Rights in Chinese Constitution” (paper presented at the international seminar on counterterrorism, de-radicalization and human rights protection, Urumqi, the Xinjiang Uygur autonomous region, September 3-7, 2019). Bai Guimei pointed out that the political elements of international terrorism compose major difficulties in defining terrorism. The difficulties have triggered multifaceted, multilevel problems such as national terrorism, national liberation movements, and the legitimacy of their reasons and objectives, throwing those who advocate an objective, neutral, comprehensive definition with unanimous agreement into a dilemma. See Bai Guimei, “Definition of International Terrorism from the Perspective of International Law”, Collected Works of Contemporary International Relations 10 (2002): 31.
     
    6.A foreign scholar once listed more than 250 definitions of terrorism by the academic circles, the government and between the governments, integrated these definitions and got a definition of terrorism of up to 580 words. However, the definition didn’t ensure identification of numerous definition-makers and was discarded for lack of practicability. See J. J. Easson and A. Schmid, 250-plus Academic, Governmental and Intergovernmental Definitions of the Terrorism, The Routledge Handbook of Terrorism Research (London: Routledge, 2011), 99-200.
     
    7.Syed Yusuf Saadat, “International Cooperation for Counterterrorism: A Strategic Perspective” (paper present-ed at the international seminar on counterterrorism, de-radicalization and human rights protection, Urumqi, the Xinjiang Uygur autonomous region, September 3-7, 2019).
     
    8.Zhang Yongqiang and Li Jie, “Phenomenon Inspection and Normative Improvement of Preventive Counterterrorism Criminal Law in China” (paper presented at the international seminar on counterterrorism, de-radicalization and human rights protection, Urumqi, the Xinjiang Uygur autonomous region, September 3-7, 2019).
     
    9.Huang Feng, The Extradition System, revised and enlarged edition (Beijing: Law Press China, 1997), 185.
     
    Quoted from Zhang Yi, Research on the Legal Mechanism of International Counterterrorism (Wuhan: Wuhan University Press, 2019), 37.
     
    10.Abdelaziz Asadi, “International Cooperation in Counterterrorism and De-radicalization” (paper presented at the international seminar on counterterrorism, de-radicalization and human rights protection, Urumqi, the Xinjiang Uygur autonomous region, September 3-7, 2019).
     
    11.Fabio Massimo Parenti, “Humanitarian Fundamentalism”: Implications and Contradictions in IRs” (paper presented at the international seminar on counterterrorism, de-radicalization and human rights protection, Urumqi, the Xinjiang Uygur autonomous region, September 3-7, 2019).
     
    12.“Political correctness”, as a legal term, initially originated in the United States from the 19th century, meaning “conforming to the Constitution and laws”. However, afterwards, the political nature of “political correctness” was constantly strengthened in Western European countries. In the viewpoint of the Western theoretical circles, “political correctness” was finally to eliminate discrimination and seek for equality. As a matter of fact, the present view of “political correctness” of the Western countries is the biased view of political correctness forged jointly by the superiority complex of the enlightenment thoughts and traditional West-tropism, the solidification of the Cold War mentality fostered in the rivalry between the United States and the Soviet Union and the anxieties of old European countries for the reconstruction of the global political and economic patterns. The highly ideologicalized, biased view of “political correctness” is both the direct arch enemy of freedom of speech and the potential ally of terrorism. See QianJinyu, “Extreme Political Correctness and Global Terrorism” (paper presented at the international seminar on counterterrorism, de-radicalization and human rights protection, Urumqi, the Xinjiang Uygur autonomous region, September 3-7, 2019).
     
    13.Ibid.
     
    14.Predrag Malkovich, “Misuse of the Concept of ‘Human Rights’ in Global Struggle and Its Influence on Counterterrorism” (paper presented at the international seminar on counterterrorism, de-radicalization and human rights protection, Urumqi, the Xinjiang Uygur autonomous region, September 3-7, 2019).
     
    15.Wahid, “Anti-extremism Struggle: Success and Failure”.
     
    16.Han Dayuan, “On the Relationship between National Security and Human Rights in Chinese Constitution” (paper presented at the international seminar on counterterrorism, de-radicalization and human rights protection, Urumqi, the Xinjiang Uygur autonomous region, September 3-7, 2019).
     
    17.Lu Zhi’an, “Religious Freedom and the De-radicalized Vocational Skill Education and Training” (paper presented at the international seminar on counterterrorism, de-radicalization and human rights protection, Urumqi, the Xinjiang Uygur autonomous region, September 3-7, 2019).
     
    18.Wahid, “Anti-extremism Struggle: Success and Failure”.
     
    19.Khuwaja Muhammad ESAMI, “Protection of Human Rights during Arm Conflict from Islamic Prospective” (paper presented at the international seminar on counterterrorism, de-radicalization and human rights protection, Urumqi, the Xinjiang Uygur autonomous region, September 3-7, 2019).
     
    20.HaoShiyuan, “National Separatism and Terrorism”, Ethno-National Studies 1 (2002): 11.
     
    21.Chen Youwu, “Human Rights Rule of Law Guarantee Program of China’s Anti-terrorism” (paper presented at the international seminar on counterterrorism, de-radicalization and human rights protection, Urumqi, the Xinjiang Uygur autonomous region, September 3-7, 2019).
     
    22.Jayanath COLOMBAGE, “Counterterrorism and De-radicalization: Lessons Learnt from the Sri Lankan Experience” (paper presented at the international seminar on counterterrorism, de-radicalization and human rights protection, Urumqi, the Xinjiang Uygur autonomous region, September 3-7, 2019).
     
    23.Shu Hongshui, “British Measures to Deal with Extremism and Its Enlightenment: Based on Prevent Strategies” (paper presented at the international seminar on counterterrorism, de-radicalization and human rights protection, Urumqi, the Xinjiang Uygur autonomous region, September 3-7, 2019).
     
    24.Rustam ATOVULLOEV, “Combating Terrorism, Radicalism and Human Rights Protection” (paper presented at the international seminar on counterterrorism, de-radicalization and human rights protection, Urumqi, the Xinjiang Uygur autonomous region, September 3-7, 2019).
     
    25.Talat SHABBIR, “Counter Extremism and Terrorism: Pakistan’s Achievements and Lessons Learnt” (paper presented at the international seminar on counterterrorism, de-radicalization and human rights protection, Urumqi, the Xinjiang Uygur autonomous region, September 3-7, 2019).
     
    26.Zhang Wanhong, “Financial Anti-Terrorism Legal Mechanism: A Human Rights Perspective” (paper presented at the international seminar on counterterrorism, de-radicalization and human rights protection, Urumqi, the Xinjiang Uygur autonomous region, September 3-7, 2019).
     
    27.Ali Abdullah WIBISONO, “State’s Responses to Terrorism: Comparing the Cases of China and Indonesia” (paper presented at the international seminar on counterterrorism, de-radicalization and human rights protec-tion, Urumqi, the Xinjiang Uygur autonomous region, September 3-7, 2019).
     
    28.Zhang Xian, “Headscarf Issue and De-radicalization: European Experiences” (paper presented at the international seminar on counterterrorism, de-radicalization and human rights protection, Urumqi, the Xinjiang Uygur autonomous region, September 3-7, 2019).
     
    29.KOZHIROVA Svetlana, “State Policy of the Republic of Kazakhstan in the Sphere of Countering Religious Extremism” (paper presented at the international seminar on counterterrorism, de-radicalization and human rights protection, Urumqi, the Xinjiang Uygur autonomous region, September 3-7, 2019).
     
    30.Zhang Xian, “Financial Anti-Terrorism Legal Mechanism: A Human Rights Perspective”.
     
    31.Li Xiao, “Judicial Experiences of Counter-terrorism, De-radicalization and Human Rights Protection in China” (paper presented at the international seminar on counterterrorism, de-radicalization and human rights protection, Urumqi, the Xinjiang Uygur autonomous region, September 3-7, 2019).
     
    32.Chen Youwu, “Human Rights Rule of Law Guarantee Program of China’s Anti-terrorism”.
     
    33.Zhang Yongqiang and Li Jie, “Phenomenon Inspection and Normative Improvement of Preventive Counter-terrorism Criminal Law in China”.
     
    34.Wang Aili, Interpretation to the Counterterrorism Law of the People’s Republic of China (Beijing: China Legal Publishing House, 2016), 42.
     
    35.Rehemutula Aishan, “Addressing both Symptoms and Root Causes: Xinjiang’s Experience of “De-extremization” in China” (paper presented at the international seminar on counterterrorism, de-radicalization and human rights protection, Urumqi, the Xinjiang Uygur autonomous region, September 3-7, 2019).
     
    36.Li Changlin, “Xinjiang’s Vocational Skill Education and Training is the Practical Exploration for the Elim-ination of Terrorism and Extremism” (paper presented at the international seminar on counterterrorism, de-radicalization and human rights protection, Urumqi, the Xinjiang Uygur autonomous region, September 3-7, 2019).
     
    37.Zeng Ailing, “China’s Legal Reform and Counterterrorism” (paper presented at the international seminar on counterterrorism, de-radicalization and human rights protection, Urumqi, the Xinjiang Uygur autonomous region, September 3-7, 2019).
     
    38.Xu Jianying, “Exploration and Experience of Radicalization and De-radicalization in Xinjiang” (paper presented at the international seminar on counterterrorism, de-radicalization and human rights protection, Urumqi, the Xinjiang Uygur autonomous region, September 3-7, 2019).
     
    39.Gabriele Lacovino, “International Challenges to Poverty Alleviation: From the European Perspective”, Collected Works on “2018 Beijing Forum on Human Rights”. Quoted from Wu Wenyang, “Poverty Elimination and Human Rights Protection: Joint Construction of Co-destiny of Mankind — Overview of Viewpoints at the ‘2018 Beijing Forum on Human Rights’”, Human Rights 6 (2018): 127.
     
    40.Aishan, “Addressing both Symptoms and Root Causes: Xinjiang’s Experience of ‘De-extremization’ in China”.
     
    41.“White Book on Counterterrorism, De-radicalization and Human Rights Protection in Xinjiang”, Information Office of the State Council, accessed September 8, 2019. http://www.scio.gov.cn/zfbps/ndhf/39911/Docu-ment/1649848/1649848.htm.
     
    42.Chen Youwu, “Human Rights Rule of Law Guarantee Program of China’s Anti-terrorism”.
     
    43.“White Book on Counterterrorism, De-radicalization and Human Rights Protection in Xinjiang”, Information Office of the State Council.
     
    44.Ibid.
     
    45.Lu Zhian, “Religious Freedom and the De-radicalized Vocational Skill Education and Training”.
     
    46.Li Changlin, “Xinjiang’s Vocational Skill Education and Training is the Practical Exploration for the Elimi-nation of Terrorism and Extremism”.
     
    47.He Zhipeng, “A Theoretical Exploration of the Relationship between Terrorism and Human Rights” (paper presented at the international seminar on counterterrorism, de-radicalization and human rights protection, Urumqi, the Xinjiang Uygur autonomous region, September 3-7, 2019).
     
    48.He Ronggong, “Reflections on Criminal Legislation on “Preventive” Counterterrorism”, China Legal Science, no.3 (2016): 145.
     
    49.Zhang Wei and Zhang Zhimin, “The Conflicts and Balances between Anti-terrorism Measures and Human Rights” (paper presented at the international seminar on counterterrorism, de-radicalization and human rights protection, Urumqi, the Xinjiang Uygur autonomous region, September 3-7, 2019).
     
    50.Ibid.
     
    51.SHABBIR, “Counter Extremism and Terrorism: Pakistan’s Achievements and Lessons Learnt”.
     
    52.Zhang Wei and Zhang Zhimin, “The Conflicts and Balances between Anti-terrorism Measures and Human Rights”.
     
    53.Liu Zuoxiang, “Counterterrorism and Individual Rights Protection — Exemplified by the Counterterrorism Act and Measures of the United States after the “September 11 Incident”, Legal Science 3 (2004): 37.
     
    54.Ding Shouqing and GuLiyan, “On the Conflict and Balance between Anti-terrorism and Human Right Protection” (paper presented at the international seminar on counterterrorism, de-radicalization and human rights protection, Urumqi, the Xinjiang Uygur autonomous region, September 3-7, 2019).
     
    55.Qi Yanping and Xia Yu, “The Protection of Fundamental Human Rights in Counter-terrorism with the Help of Big Data” (paper presented at the international seminar on counterterrorism, de-radicalization and human rights protection, Urumqi, the Xinjiang Uygur autonomous region, September 3-7, 2019).
     
    56.Li Xiao, “Judicial Experiences of Counter-terrorism, De-radicalization and Human Rights Protection in China”.
     
    57.Ding Shouqing and Gu Liyan, “On the Conflict and Balance between Anti-terrorism and Human Right Protection”.
     
    58.Zhang Wei and Zhang Zhimin, “The Conflicts and Balances between Anti-terrorism Measures and Human Rights”.
     
    59.Ibid.
     
    60.ATOVULLOEV, “Combating Terrorism, Radicalism and Human Rights Protection”.
     
    61.Xi Jinping, “Work Together to Build a Community of Shared Future for Human Beings — Speech at the United Nations Office in Geneva”, People’s Daily, January, 2017, 3.
     
    62.Mestre, “The Fight against Terrorism and Religious Extremist: Some Reflections and Remarks”. The conventions on civil aviation include: Convention on Offences and Certain Other Acts Committed on Board Aircraft (1963), Huge Convention for Suppression of Unlawful Seizure of Aircraft (1970), Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts Against the Safety of Civil Aviation (1971), Supplementary to the Conven-tion for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts of Violence at Airports Serving International Civil Aviation (1988), Convention on the Suppression of Unlawful Acts Relating to International Civil Aviation (2010), Protocol Supplementary to the Convention on the Suppression of Unlawful Seizure of Aircraft (2010) and Protocol of Amendment to the Convention on Offences and Certain Other Acts Committed on Board Aircraft (2014);The conventions on protecting the international staff include: Convention for Prevention and Punishment of Crimes against International Protected Persons (1973); Conventions against the taking of hostage include: International Convention against the Taking of Hostages (1979); Conventions on nuclear materials include: CPPNM (1980) and Amendment to CPPNM (2005); Conventions on marine navigation include: Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts against the Safety of Maritime Navigation (1988), Protocol to the Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts against the Safety of Maritime Navigation (2005), Protocol for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts against the Safety of Fixed Plat-forms Located on the Continental Shelf (1988) and Protocol for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts against the Safety of Fixed Platforms Located on the Continental Shelf (2005); Conventions on explosive materials include: Convention on the Marking of Plastic Explosives for the Purpose of Detection (1991); Conventions on terrorist bombings include: International Convention for the Suppression of Terrorist Bombings (1997); Conventions for the suppression of the financing of terrorism include: International Convention for the Suppres-sion of the Financing of Terrorism (1999);Conventions on nuclear terrorism include: International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism (2005).
     
    63.Ibid. “Global Counterterrorism Strategy of the United Nations”, official website of the United Nations, ac-cessed September 8, 2019. https://www.un.ore/couiiterterrorism/ctitf/zh/un-global-counter-terrorism-strategy.
     
    64.The task of the counterterrorist executive team is to enhance the coordination and unification of the counter-terrorism efforts of the UN system. The work team is composed of 38 international entities closely related with the nature of work and multilateral counterterrorism efforts. Its main objective is to take organic actions to maximize the comparative advantages of each entity to help the member countries to implement the four pillars of the Global Counterterrorism Strategy of the United Nations. See Counterterrorist Executive Teams, official website of the United Nations, accessed September 19, 2019, httus://www.un.ore/counterterrorism/ ctitf/zh.
     
    65.The United Nations Counter-Terrorism Center was initiated with the voluntary donation of the government of Saudi Arabia. Abdelaziz Asadi, “International Cooperation in Counterterrorism and De-radicalization”.
     
    66.Ibid.
     
    67.Ibid.
     
    68.Li Geqin, “Non-traditional Security Governance of EU: Concept, Functions and Structure”, Social Sciences Abroad 3 (2008): 87.
     
    69.Shu Hongshui, “British Measures to Deal with Extremism and Its Enlightenment: Based on Prevent Strategies”.
     
    70.Abdelaziz Asadi, “International Cooperation in Counterterrorism and De-radicalization”.
     
    71.NGEOW Chow Bing, “Regional and Cross-Regional Cooperation in Counter-terrorism: ASEAN and the SCO” (paper presented at the international seminar on counterterrorism, de-radicalization and human rights protection, Urumqi, the Xinjiang Uygur autonomous region, September 3-7, 2019).
     
    72.Shanghai Convention on Combating Terrorism, Separatism and Extremism, Concept of Cooperation between SCO Member States in Combating Terrorism, Separatism and Extremism, SCO Convention on Combating Terrorism, SCO Convention on Combating Extremism, SCO Cooperation Programme on Fighting Terrorism, Separatism and Extremism for 2019-2021 and SCO Plan of Action for Cooperation with the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan on Fighting Terrorism ,Drug Trafficking and Organized Crimes etc.
     
    73.NGEOW Chow Bing, “Regional and Cross-Regional Cooperation in Counter-terrorism: ASEAN and the SCO”.
     
    74.Zhang Yonghe, “Xinjiang’s Vocational-Technical Education and Training Reflect the Due Responsibilities of the Government (paper presented at the international seminar on counterterrorism, de-radicalization and human rights protection, Urumqi, the Xinjiang Uygur autonomous region, September 3-7, 2019).
     
    75.KOZHIROVA Svetlana, “State Policy of the Republic of Kazakhstan in the Sphere of Countering Religious Extremism”.
     
    76.Anurag Sharma, “Counter-Terrorism Framework of the United Nations and India’s Approach of Deradicalisation” (paper presented at the international seminar on counterterrorism, de-radicalization and human rights protection, Urumqi, the Xinjiang Uygur autonomous region, September 3-7, 2019).
     
    77.Yin Sheng, “Research on Current Status, Problems and Strategies of Counterterrorism in China”, Contemporary Law  Review 3 (2008): 14.
     
    78.Rustam ATOVULLOEV, “Combating Terrorism, Radicalism and Human Rights Protection”.
     
    79.Wahid, “Anti-extremism Struggle: Success and Failure”.
     
    80.Rustam ATOVULLOEV, “Combating Terrorism, Radicalism and Human Rights Protection”.
     
    81.ABADDI Ahmed, “Switching from Prevention to Immunization in Countering Terrorism, within the Human Rights Frame of Action” (paper presented at the international seminar on counterterrorism, de-radicalization and human rights protection, Urumqi, the Xinjiang Uygur autonomous region, September 3-7, 2019).
     
    82.Shu, “British Measures to Deal with Extremism and Its Enlightenment: Based on Prevent Strategies”.
     
    83.SHABBIR, “Counter Extremism and Terrorism: Pakistan’s Achievements and Lessons Learnt”.
     
    84.Ahmed, “Switching from Prevention to Immunization in Countering Terrorism, within the Human Rights Frame of Action”.
     
    85.Ahmed, “Switching from Prevention to Immunization in Countering Terrorism, within the Human Rights Frame of Action”.
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